Glossary of Audiophile Terms: 



IN-EAR MONITORS | IEC-711 Compliant Coupler

My newer IEM reviews all feature IEC-711 compliant measurements which use a generic coupler that meets the industry standard for Earphone measurements. Data shown will be in complete raw formatting.

HEADPHONES  | GRAS 43AG CLONE (Ear & Cheek Simulator) 

This is an IEC-711 compliant and a clone of the GRAS system that uses an artificial pinna with flat metal plate and used with the IEC-711 base coupler. This system can produce results similar to industry standard measurement rigs using a unique calibration file that I created using data from Crinacle and Oratory1990's databases.


HEADPHONES  | MINI DSP EARS (Older Reviews and Measurements)

All of my personal measurements are performed using the MiniDSP EARS measurement rig. This rig works quite well but it does have limitations. It also is not industry standard. So please take all measurements with a grain of salt.

In particular, the EARS does have issues with measurements around 4-5 KHz. With most all measurement devices, anything past 10-15KHz can have a lot of scatter. There is also possible noise induced measurements in the lower and sub-bass regions (below 40Hz).

For my measurements, I try to take at least 5 measurements on each ear at varying positions, and use what I consider the best middle ground of the two. I follow up with my own listening to verify if it sounds like it measures as best as I can.

There are several compensation curves that may be shown.

For IEMs, the compensation curve I typically show is the IEM Diffuse Field compensation provided by MiniDSP, which is loosely based of the Etymotics ER4 IEM and Harman Targets.

For Headphones, the curves is the HPN from MiniDSP. This one is similar to a diffuse-field target and closely resembles Tyll Herten's Innerfidelity graph database. HEQ graphs will be noted as such, and those are compensated to an earlier version of the Harman Target Curve.

Music Shopping:

These are some of the stores that provided me samples in the past that I think provide great customer service or stores that I just recommend in general. We are not sponsored by anyone, but these are just good people:






Shenzhen Audio

Penon Audio

Viva Tubes


APOS Audio